Blockchain layer 1 vs layer 2

Globus Chain
4 min readMar 28, 2023

Blockchain layer 1

Layer 1 blockchain is the underlying infrastructure of a blockchain network that defines the basic rules and features of the blockchain. It is the first layer of the blockchain architecture and deals with fundamental aspects such as the consensus mechanism, block creation, transaction processing, and network security. Layer 1 blockchain determines how data is stored, validated, and transferred across the network.

Layer 1 blockchain is responsible for maintaining the integrity of the blockchain network and ensuring that all nodes agree on the current state of the network. It achieves this through various consensus mechanisms such as Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS).

Examples of Layer 1 blockchain networks include Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Litecoin. These networks have their own unique set of rules and features, and they differ in terms of scalability, transaction speed, and security. Layer 1 blockchain networks are the foundation of the decentralized application (dApp) ecosystem, allowing developers to build applications that run on top of the blockchain.

Layer 1 blockchain has several pros and cons:


  1. Security: Layer 1 blockchains are designed to be highly secure and resistant to attacks due to their use of cryptographic protocols and consensus mechanisms.
  2. Decentralization: Layer 1 blockchains are decentralized networks that do not rely on any central authority or intermediary, providing greater trust and transparency.
  3. Immutability: Layer 1 blockchains have an immutable ledger that cannot be altered or deleted, ensuring that all transactions are recorded accurately and transparently.
  4. Network Effects: Layer 1 blockchains with large user communities and network effects have greater value and are more resistant to forks or network attacks.


  1. Scalability: Layer 1 blockchains can struggle with scalability as they have limited transaction processing capacity due to the need for consensus mechanisms that require all nodes to validate transactions.
  2. High Transaction Fees: As a result of the scalability issue, Layer 1 blockchains can have high transaction fees during peak usage periods.
  3. Limited Functionality: Layer 1 blockchains can have limited functionality due to their focus on security and decentralization, making it difficult to develop complex decentralized applications (dApps).
  4. Environmental Impact: Some Layer 1 blockchains such as Bitcoin use Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism that consume large amounts of energy, leading to environmental concerns.

Blockchain Layer 2

Layer 2 blockchain is a secondary infrastructure layer that operates on top of Layer 1 blockchain networks. It is designed to improve the scalability, efficiency, and functionality of Layer 1 blockchains by processing a large number of transactions off-chain and then settling the final result on-chain.

Layer 2 blockchain networks use various techniques such as state channels, sidechains, and Plasma to execute transactions off-chain. These techniques allow users to transact with each other without the need to broadcast every transaction to the entire network, which can lead to network congestion and higher transaction fees.

One of the most popular Layer 2 blockchain solutions is the Lightning Network, which is built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. The Lightning Network is a network of payment channels that enable instant, high-volume micropayments while reducing fees and congestion on the Bitcoin network.

Other Layer 2 blockchain solutions include the Raiden Network for Ethereum, which allows for fast, cheap, and scalable payments, and Optimistic Rollups, which enable off-chain computation and smart contract execution.

Layer 2 blockchain networks are seen as a key solution to the scalability problem facing blockchain networks, and they are expected to play an increasingly important role in the development of decentralized applications (dApps).

Layer 2 blockchain solutions have their own set of pros and cons, which are as follows:


  1. Scalability: Layer 2 solutions can significantly improve the scalability of Layer 1 blockchains by processing transactions off-chain, reducing network congestion and increasing transaction throughput.
  2. Cost Efficiency: Layer 2 solutions can reduce transaction fees and gas costs by processing transactions off-chain and settling only the final result on the Layer 1 blockchain.
  3. Speed: Layer 2 solutions can enable faster transaction processing times by processing transactions off-chain and settling the final result on the Layer 1 blockchain.
  4. Functionality: Layer 2 solutions can enable more complex and sophisticated decentralized applications (dApps) to be built on top of Layer 1 blockchains, providing greater functionality and use cases.


  1. Security: Layer 2 solutions may be less secure than Layer 1 blockchains as they rely on a smaller set of nodes to process transactions, making them more vulnerable to attacks.
  2. Centralization: Some Layer 2 solutions may introduce centralization as they rely on a smaller set of nodes to process transactions off-chain, which may be controlled by a few entities.
  3. Complexity: Layer 2 solutions can be complex to develop and implement, and may require significant changes to the existing blockchain infrastructure.
  4. Interoperability: Layer 2 solutions may not be interoperable with other Layer 1 or Layer 2 blockchains, leading to fragmentation and reduced network effects.



Globus Chain

Globus Smart Chain was born from the idea of creating something where we can create a ecosystem of services and products.